A Brief Overview

The Swachh Bharat Mission was announced by the Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi at Rajghat, New Delhi on Mahatma Gandhi’s birthday,2nd October 2014, to bring into reality his dream of creating a clean India. This initiative to clean India has almost become a national movement with Government and citizen participation.

The mission aims at consistent cleanliness activities across India. The programs taken up by the Government in a bid to clean India are solid and liquid waste management, building toilets, creating clean drinkable water sources. Moreover, the Government has been an effort in awareness campaigns in urban and rural areas through mass media, focus group discussions, Panchayat meetings, etc.


  • To establish sanitization facilities all across India.
  • To spread awareness of maintaining hygiene and cleanliness in citizens.
  • To create adequate infrastructure for solid and liquid waste management.
  • To build enough public toilets as well as toilets for households for preventing open defecation and maintaining hygiene.
  • To implement a National level plan for sanitation and cleanliness in rural and urban areas in the country.
  • To create a disease-free environment by proper garbage disposal.
  • To build more drainage facilities and water pumps.
  • To use new technology in waste management.

Swachh Bharat Activities In Rural Areas

The Swachh Bharat Mission in the villages have been carried out in two phases starting from the year 2014. Ever since the inception of the mission, the emphasis has been put on two major programs like Open Defecation Free (ODF) and Waste management, in rural areas. The activities have been carried out successfully. The Central and the State Government took the initiative to give financial support to build toilets in rural households. The incentive provided was in the ratio of 75% by the Central Government and 25% by the State Government. Each household was given an incentive of Rs.12,000 to build toilets to eradicate ODF.

Moreover, a mass awareness program was arranged to bring in behavioural change in citizens in rural areas. Then again, Phase II was launched with the aim of creating better solid and liquid waste management systems in rural areas. The government also provided funds for schools to build separate toilets for boys and girls. The number of Toilets built till 2020 is a staggering 10,28,61,271.

Swachh Bharat activities in Urban Areas

The main focus of the Swachh Bharat Mission in urban areas has been eliminating manual scavenging, waste management, eradication of open defecation and construction of public toilets, and sanitization of all the cleanliness infrastructure. The Central and State Government has both funded the building of public toilets. Also,4234 towns and more have been covered under this program since 2014 for a 5-year plan. The number of community toilets that have been built till August 2020 is 5,94,259 and 62,09,696 individual household toilets.

Swachh Survekshan Survey

This initiative has been taken up by the Ministry of Urban Development to carry out a nationwide survey in towns and cities for accumulating data on the progress of the sanitation and cleanliness projects which are being implemented. The survey is done by the Quality Control of India. Apart from the usual parameters, capacity building and behavioral change impact are also taken into consideration during the survey.

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